Thursday, February 6, 2020
Organ Donation in the USA - Essay Example I have learned that in the United States only, there are more than 20,000 organ transplants performed every year, but this has not entirely solved the challenges facing organ donations in the medical field (Brezina, 2010). The first organ transplant experiments caused controversies where people who did not believe the procedure to be possible. Organ transplant is facing challenges from religion, philosophy, and politics and in the field of medicine. Quite a number of people are in need of organ transplants, for instance, in the United States, there are citizens in need of organ transplants such as people who have organ failure who may die, and this has raised questions about the organ donation system (Brezina, 2010). This led to the committee in charge of the organ donation to consider a number of approaches to increase the number of donors to sustain the need of patients suffering from organ failure. One of the approaches the committee had was the registration of the donor, intentio ns being to solve the issue of conflict between the next of kin and the medical committee avoiding time wasting (Price, 2000). The financial incentive for choosing to be a donor is another approach. Organs have diverse waiting times because their need varies and from statistics, kidneys have longer waiting times than another organ transplant. Research shows that there is a deficiency of obtainable organs including tissue transplants. Organ transplant involves a complex line of interactions. Among them are the patients, family members, medical professionals, organ procurement and transplant coordinators, the hospital where the donation takes place, the organ procurement organization that facilitates the acquisition and distribution of the organs, and the transplant center (Brezina, 2010). The organ donation system has focused mostly on deceased donors whose death has been determined by neurologic criteria.Ã
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Enabling a Remote Workforce. Essay Productivity Are employees who telecommute more productive than their traditional office colleagues? 1 Savings What types of savings from a telecommuting program should employers expect? 2 Planning What kind of planning does an organization need to do to properly implement a successful telecommuting program? 2 Eligibility How do managers determine the eligibility of employees for telecommuting? 3 Social Interaction What types of social limitations do remote workers experience? 3 Communication Limitations Are organizations disadvantaged due to communication limitations with remote workers? 4 Management How do managers successfully manage and support remote workers? 5 Technical Issues 5 Network What are the security, bandwidth, and infrastructure implications for the company network to support remote access? 5 Hardware/Software Needs What are the hardware, home infrastructure, and software licensing needs for the remote user? 6 Telecommuting Variations What are alternative solutions or variations for telecommuting programs? 7 Connectivity What are the tools and considerations to accommodate remote network access? 8 Communication How do you allow your employees to communicate electronically and verbally from home? 9 Collaboration What are the tools that foster communication? 9 IT Support What are the options and challenges to providing remote employees with technical support? 10 Cost How much does deploying a remote workforce cost? 10 Conclusion 11 Introduction There are a number of good reasons why companies should consider supporting a remote worker program including an expanded labor pool, reduced traffic congestion costs (late arriving/stressed out employees), improved recruitment and retention of staff, facility cost savings, reduced parking costs, reduced sick leave and improved worker productivity. Conversely, there are some disadvantages that companies should also be aware of including an isolated work force, family turf problems, lack of social interaction with other employees and the fear by remote workers that they will be overlooked for promotions. Companies obviously have a lot to factor in deciding whether or not to implement a telecommuting program. Thus, the goal of this paper is to provide consideration points to many of the common questions facing such companies. The questions and discussion herein are divided into two primary categories: technical and organizational. They are intended to provide more generalized information that decision makers can use to enhance their understanding of telecommuting issues. Organizational Issues Productivity Are employees who telecommute more productive than their traditional office colleagues? In general, remote workers appear to be more productive than traditional office workers. In an October 1995 survey of Fortune 1000 managers, 58% reported increased productivity by employees who telecommuted. Also, according to the State of Californias Telecommuting Pilot Program, companies that implemented a remote work force experienced productivity increases ranging from 10 30%. Further, telecommuters working for American Express produced 43% more business than their office-based counterparts1. Clearly the case can be made that remote workers are indeed more productive. The primary explanation for improved productivity is a quieter work environment, which offers fewer interruptions. Certainly the remote worker also faces interruptions in their daily work, such as family business, neighbors, chores, television, etc. However these interruptions are generally much fewer than those experienced by the traditional office worker. Savings What types of savings from a telecommuting program should employers expect? The biggest savings for companies result from reduced absenteeism costs and reduced real estate costs. Oftentimes when employees need to take care of personal business such as doctor visits, car repair, tending to children, etc. they call in sick for the entire day. However, remote workers can take care of personal business and still accomplish some or most of their work tasks from home. The International Telework Association Council estimates that employees who telecommute can save their employers $10,000 each in reduced absenteeism costs2. According to PC World, telework can cut corporate real estate costs from 25 to 90%, which can result in substantial savings for employers. In fact, ATT saves $25 million per year from employees who are full-time telecommuters3. Many companies who have implemented a successful telecommuting program have instituted hoteling systems in their offices. A hotel is essentially an empty cubicle that is set up with a phone, network connections and basic office supplies that any employee can use, often by making a reservation with an office administrator. Hoteling offers telecommuting employees a place to work in the office when necessary without employers having to provide them with a full-time workspace. Planning What kind of planning does an organization need to do to properly implement a successful telecommuting program? Without doubt one of the most important keys to implementing a successful telecommuting program is proper planning. And since every organization has their unique differences (i.e. size, industry, complexity, culture, locale), there is no single formula for such planning. However, successful telecommuting programs should address the following at a minimum: * Perform an initial assessment * Consider organizational strategy and culture * Consider the role of management * Consider the need for staff input * Determine which staff tasks are most amenable to telecommuting * Consider regulatory compliance and legal issues * Determine technology needs * Prepare a cost-benefit analysis and/or ROI analysis4 Eligibility How do managers determine the eligibility of employees for telecommuting? According to Langhoff, tasks that are most appropriate for telecommuting are jobs where a person works alone, handling information such as reports, proposals, data or research. Writers, salespersons, accountants, programmers, graphic artists, researchers, engineers, architects, public relations professionals all are prime candidates for telecommuting5. In determining eligibility for telecommuting, managers should first consider whether the employees tasks can be performed remotely. Second, an examination of the individuals level of performance should be made (i.e. are they hard working and self-motivated or do they need constant supervision and coaching?). Of course it can be tricky selecting who can and cannot telecommute; therefore companies should be aware of the potential legal implications stemming from employees who wished to work remotely but were turned down. Social Interaction What types of social limitations do remote workers experience? Too often companies only view telecommuting as providing benefits to them and to their employees; however, there remains potential downsides. One potential downside is the lack of social interaction between employees. Employees who work at an office setting spend a considerable amount of their day interacting with other employees. These water-cooler discussions foster a camaraderie that translates into value for companies when the same employees work on projects together or are in need of support from each other. Also, the camaraderie indirectly benefits the company when management is trying to achieve buy-in on various initiatives. Lastly, having close relationships allow employees to maintain a healthy mental balance at work resulting in an overall higher level of morale. Once telecommuting is introduced into the mixed, some or all of those relationships are lost. Analysis of past telecommuting research shows that the most cited problem associated with negative impacts of telecommuting is the feeling of isolation and loss of morale6. Although isolation feelings and loss of morale (and the resulting decrease in a companys value) are difficult metrics to measure, some workable solutions have been devised to combat these negative issues. Other solutions have included limiting telecommuting days and making sure to include telecommuting employees in company events7. Communication Limitations Are organizations disadvantaged due to communication limitations with remote workers? The office environment offers some benefits that telecommuting cannot provide. Most important amongst these benefits is the companys ability to communicate to its employees. Most offices display signs of the companys direct communication whether it is embodied in mission statements, annual goal and targets, or newsletters. Indirectly, the company communicates with corporate color schemes, promotion company clothing, and other branding material such as coffee mugs. All of these communications are omnipresent throughout the corporate office setting and help to build company pride, employee loyalty, and a sense of corporate culture. Employees who tend to work remotely are only exposed slightly to this communication through email, conference calls, and other mailed material. This lack of corporate communication may lead to low motivation, lack of identification with the company, and reduced company loyalty8. The solution to the communication challenge is to ensure that corporate communication includes channels to the remote worker. In fact, companies should recognize that off-site employees need more direct and indirect communication such that employees do not develop those negative feelings. Also, companies should make a concerted effort to limit telecommuting days and to include all telecommuting employees in company events9. Management How do managers successfully manage and support remote workers? Another challenge with telecommuting employees revolves around their direct management. Not only do managers find it much more difficult to monitor the productivity and effectiveness of their telecommuting employee, but they are also challenged by having to change their management style to incorporate the limitations brought about by telecommuting10. Managers who have telecommuting employees are also faced with more potential issues such as family conflicts arising from their employee working from home. These conflicts cross the boundary of work and personal life, and almost always negatively impact productivity. Lastly, it is the role of managers to provide organizational support to the telecommuting employee. With the employee being off-site, the manager is usually limited to email and telephone to support his employee. This limitation further restricts a managers effectiveness and typically utilizes more of a managers time in sorting out support logistic11. Solutions to the managers challenge involve setting up a detailed action plan between manager and telecommuting employee. This action plan should be supplemented with an active communication plan12. Once expectations for both parties are clearly outlined in the action plan, both parties can then communicate progress or support needs more efficiently. Moreover, managers can adapt their management styles to telecommuting employees by setting results-based milestones and orienting tasks into projects such that managers still retain control of certain processes13. Technical Issues Network What are the security, bandwidth, and infrastructure implications for the company network to support remote access? Before considering the strategy to deploying remote access for a company, a survey should be done of the existing network and current remote access configurations. Once a complete analysis of the current configuration and future needs are assessed, then the following issues need to be included in your strategy of preparing and deploying the company network for a remote force: security, bandwidth, and infrastructure.14 Table N1 3 Areas of Security15 Internal Network Usually the most secure of the three, but still should be reviewed for any fallacies. External Network Must secure the PC in the remote location (i.e. firewalls, RSA encryption, etc) to prevent unauthorized access and snooping from the remote location. Remote Worker Least secure, must require security policies to be followed about passwords, where to connect, and who to trust. With more remote workers, there will be an increased demand of bandwidth on the network. Will the remote employees be productive with the current infrastructure that your network can provide? Perhaps considerations for upgrading from16: From To Dial-up (56K) ISDN (128K-256K) ISDN (128K-256K) T1 (up to 1.5M) T1 (up to1.5M) T3 (44.736 Mbps) With the increase demand more infrastructure will be required for allowing an increasing number of remote workers to connect to the corporate network (more servers, security hardware, and routing hardware). Hardware/Software Needs What are the hardware, home infrastructure, and software licensing needs for the remote user? For the employees who travel often, they are usually provided some mobile computing solutions and they have found ways to work from remote locations. However the new generation of employees, the remote worker will work from the comfort of their home. Working from home brings a new set of issues in to play. HARDWARE * Can the employee keep work and personal items separated? * If not, should the company provide additional hardware? * If the company does NOT provide additional hardware, then how much of the employees hardware can be expensed if upgrades are necessary? * The employee may need/require a fax machine, an additional phone line, or other office equipment. SOFTWARE * Software licensing has be clear-cut as far as how many computers can use the same license, however what about home workers? * The companys site licensing may not cover home computers and will require the company to pay extra for these licenses. INFRASTRUCTURE * For someone at home who has a DSL, Cable, or Dial-Up connecting, how much of that should the company pay for? * Support, Support, Support. Who will provide the maintenance and support? * Is the home PC secure? If not, who will provide the hardware/software in order to secure it? Also consider how much of the companys data should be on the personal machine. What happens if the home PC is hacked? Telecommuting Variations What are alternative solutions or variations for telecommuting programs? Outlined in this paper is the most common setup for a company to develop telecommuting options for their employees. However most of these configurations allow the employee to use limited resources over the Internet (access to shared folders, documents and e-mail). Depending on the size, the costs of setting up an infrastructure for telecommuting workforce could be unaffordable. The following are other options available to companies who wish to have a telecommuting workforce. Citrix Remember or heard about the mainframe days? Well, history tends to repeat itself. As more PCs were becoming powerful, we moved away from the mainframe days. However with the Internet, the paradigm of sharing resources has returned and now software applications and operating systems have the enhanced ability to handle more than one user concurrently. Citrix17 allows concurrent remote users access to a single server that will give a separate session for each user. Each user will have access to the same set applications on one machine. This solves the software licensing issues of working from a remote location as well as reduces amount of maintenance of hardware/software for the IT department. Satellite Offices Companies are opening satellite offices to reduce commute times for employees and help alleviate city traffic and parking congestion problems. This will result in reduced land costs since these centers are away from the city where the cost of living is lower.18 Telework centers are similar to a satellite office, but operate by independent parties. Unlike satellite offices, numerous employees use them. Think of these options as outsourcing building/infrastructure issues. Connectivity What are the tools and considerations to accommodate remote network access? In todays information environment, connectivity has become essential for a significant portion of the workplace. Access to email, network resources, server applications, and the Internet is a continual activity for the white-collar professional. At a minimum, companies would be well served to support webmail. In much the same vein as portal email (Hotmail, Yahoo), mail is maintained on the company server. This server is then linked to a website, and employees can gain secure access to the company server via any browser. Once logged in, an individual has the full functionality of their account to compose, receive, store, and delete email without explicitly needing to connect to the company network. However, there will be a resulting lack of security employees need to be encouraged to create and regularly modify complex passwords, and to close public web sessions. That said, the security risk is only to an individual email account; not the company network as a whole. A second logical step for an IT department is to enable Virtual Private Networking (VPN). This will allow employees to connect their remote machines to the company network after establishing an Internet connection through an ISP. This machine then behaves just as a networked office-located computer. For users maintaining both an office and remote computer, this solution requires any desktop applications be maintained on both systems. To avoid this duality, many users will first establish a VPN connection and then emulate their office computer with built-in Windows 2000 and Windows XP remote desktop tools or 3rd party tools such as VNC19. In essence, the remote machine then acts as a terminal or monitor to the office computer, and the user can run the applications found on that machine without any needs for secondary software. The downside to this solution is that emulation is only as good as the connection speed. Communication How do you allow your employees to communicate electronically and verbally from home? Todays telephone solutions for the telecommuter generally consist of providing an office phone with call-forwarding features to an employees business cell phone an often times reimbursed expense. This avoids some of the problems associated with using a home line for a combination of business, personal, and dial-up use. The office system simplifies contacting an individual (Simply dial an extension and press 7 to connect to the forwarded line rather than maintaining a constantly changing set of employee contact information). A home line alternative is a distinctive ring system multiple phone numbers (home, office, fax) use a single line with each producing a unique ring that can be directed to an appropriate voice mail box or machine (PC, fax). A second alternative consists of an off-premise-extension (OPX) or foreign exchange (FX) system. While more expensive, these systems truly mimic the office with a separate home line that is identical to an office extension20. Electronic mail is a requirement for most remote users. IT departments can help support employees using multiple computers to access their email by allowing mail to be retained on the company server rather than downloaded to the individual PC. (As an unrelated benefit, this provides much greater redundancy in the event of a computer hard drive crash). Please see the discussion on web mail for more on remote e-mail use. A less intrusive substitute to phone conversations is instant messaging. While this has potential for both misuse and unproductive use (where conversation is more efficient), this is often times an ideal mechanism for sharing small tidbits of information and is especially valuable for troubleshooting. A more extensive tool would be the newsgroup in combination with a company intranet. Here, employees can develop an extensive knowledge base of processes, questions and answers. Collaboration What are the tools that foster communication? At the lowest end of the technology spectrum, there is the traditional conference call a virtual audio meeting with many parties. In an effort to fight the inherent isolationism of remote workers, the videoconference personalizes the conference call as participants better identify with the visual image than the audio. To implement, however, youll need additional webcam hardware, videoconferencing software and a fast Internet connection. Chat rooms (a variation on the aforementioned instant messaging) are suitable for short discussions or as supplements to a meeting (agenda, minutes, links, data, follow-ups) Web conferencing often includes both videoconferencing and chat room features, but distinguishes itself in that it allows a moderator to emulate his/her desktop to the attendees. Among the forefront of the software leaders in this area is WebEx21. IT Support What are the options and challenges to providing remote employees with technical support? One of the drawbacks to working remotely is the absence of immediate technical support for both trivial and complex hardware and software issues. Given that troubleshooting is often a hands-on activity, solving problems for telecommuters is likely to be frustrating and time-consuming. However IT managers can take a number of steps to reduce downtime. * Standardize the equipment and installation. The more alike your users systems are, the better positioned you will be to reproduce and diagnose problems. * Maintain an inventory of back-up equipment in the same way that a car repair shop offers loaner cars. * Set up remote users so their desktops can be emulated by technical support in this way an IT department can provide step by step demonstrations to fix problems * Maintain an easily accessible FAQ and update it with each new problem and solution Managers may also want to consider outsourcing their technical support requirements. Companies like Voyus22 provide 24 hour help desk support and web-based support applications. Cost How much does deploying a remote workforce cost? The decision that the companies face is how much ownership the company will take for each of the types of telecommuters. For an occasional telecommuter, the employee will more than likely take on the costs. For a heavy telecommuter, the company will probably need to cover the costs to the employee. Telecommuter Type Frequency Implementation Costs Involved Occasional Infrequently Dial-up, Web-based applications Regular Scheduled intervals Remote Connection, 3rd Party Software, Laptop, Firewall, Router. Heavy Frequently to Full Time Provide second computer, VPN connection, ISP costs, other office equipment, maintenance. It is not the technology costs that make or break the telecommuting decision, but its the organizational issues that should benefit the company if deployed properly. Conclusion Telecommuting seems to be the answer to the increased workload versus work/personal life balance issue that many companies are seeking. While there exist many challenges towards implementing a successful telecommuting plan, there also seem to be many practical solutions. The real issue seems to stem from whether a company will change its processes and standards to allow for telecommuting to co-exist with office employees. Such a decision, as this paper has outlined, is not as simple as providing remote employees with an internet connection. Rather, the decision has significant technical and organizational ramifications that need to be well thought out before implementation; otherwise, the company is doomed to make the mistakes of many companies that have haphazardly gone down this path. 1 http://www.langhoff.com/faqs.html 2 http://www.youcanworkfromanywhere.com/infocenter/facts.htm 3 http://www.youcanworkfromanywhere.com/infocenter/facts.htm 4 http://www.tfw.org.uk/teleworking/contents.htm 5 http://www.langhoff.com/faqs.html 6 Pinsonneault, A. (1999). The Impacts of Telecommuting on Organizations and Individuals: A Review of the Literature, Cahier du GreSI, 99(9). 7 Guimaraes, T., and Dallow, P. (1999). Empiracally Testing the Benefits, Problems, and Success Factors for Telecommuting Programs, European Journal of Information Systems, 8, 40-54. 8 Davenport, T.H. and Pearlson, K. (1998). Two Cheers for the Virtual Office, Sloan Management Review, 39(4), 51-65. 9 Guimaraes, T., and Dallow, P. (1999). Empiracally Testing the Benefits, Problems, and Success Factors for Telecommuting Programs, European Journal of Information Systems, 8, 40-54. 10 Kirvan, P. (1995). How to Manage Systems for Remote Workers, Communications News, 33, 67. 11 Kirvan, P. (1995). How to Manage Systems for Remote Workers, Communications News, 33, 67. 12 Guimaraes, T., and Dallow, P. (1999). Empiracally Testing the Benefits, Problems, and Success Factors for Telecommuting Programs, European Journal of Information Systems, 8, 40-54. 13 Davenport, T.H. and Pearlson, K. (1998). Two Cheers for the Virtual Office, Sloan Management Review, 39(4), 51-65. 14 Ascend Communications, 2002, Telecommuting Network Guide: A Resource for Planners, Excutives, and Information Managers, http://users.skynet.be/teletravail/PDF/solut_technique.pdf 15 Jessica L. Hirsch, 2000, Telecommuting: Security Policies and Procedures for the Work-From-Home Workforce, http://www.teleworker.org/articles/telework_security.html 16 Bandwidth Savings, 2003, Services In Detailed, http://www.bandwidthsavings.net/servicesdetail.cfm 17 Citrix.com, 2003, Home Page, http://www.citrix.com 18 Hall, Aric, Bilski, Alicia, Wadman, Scott, 2003, Ways People Telecommute, http://members.tripod.com/~trom/page3.html 19 http://www.uk.research.att.com/vnc 20 Wrobel, Leo A., February 1997, Helpful Hints for MIS Managers Supporting Telecommuters and Nomadic Users -Part I: Voice Communications, http://www.rewireit.com/articles/w0297.pdf 21 http://www.webx.com 22 http://www.pcsupport.com/
Monday, January 20, 2020
At one point in the study of the Romantic period of music, we come upon the first of several apparently opposing conditions that plague all attempts to grasp the meaning of Romantic as applied to the music of the 19th century. This opposition involved the relation between music and words. If instrumental music is the perfect Romantic art, why is it acknowledged that the great masters of the symphony, the highest form of instrumental music, were not Romantic composers, but were the Classical composers, Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven? Moreover, one of the most characteristic 19th century genres was the Lied, a vocal piece in which Shubert, Schumann, Brahams, and Wolf attained a new union between music and poetry. Furthermore, a large number of leading composers in the 19th century were extremely interested and articulate in literary expression, and leading Romantic novelists and poets wrote about music with deep love and insight. The conflict between the ideal of pure instrumental music (absolute music) as the ultimate Romantic mode of expression, and the strong literary orientation of the 19th century, was resolved in the conception of program music. Program music, as Liszt and others in the 19th century used the term, is music associated with poetic, descriptive, and even narrative subject matter. This is done not by means of musical figures imitating natural sounds and movements, but by imaginative suggestion. Program music aimed ...
Sunday, January 12, 2020
For fresh graduates, getting in the big four firms have long been considered as one of the ideal places where everyone aims for. This is because there are significant benefits from working at a Big 4 Firm. For instance, every Big 4 firm offer superior training to staffs, networking opportunities with professionals across different industries, and possibility to be hired at one of the client companies. Hence, many young accountants and fresh graduates are willing to take on lower pay to work in these firms. However, working in a Big 4 firm is never an easy task, especially during peak season from January to April. Typically, an employee has to work ten to twelve hours a day during weekdays and weekends. Heavy work hours has greatly affected employees in maintaining work life balance and brought challenges to both employees and employers. The current study identifies the factors that could affect employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ work life balance in one of the Big Four accounting firms Ã¢â¬â Deloitte Macau. Both questionnaire surveys (n=30) and interviews (across two management level) have been conducted and reveal convergent outcomes. Recommendations have been provided to further improve the work-life balance in Deloitte Macau. Introduction of Deloitte Macau Deloitte Macau is an accounting firm that provides audit, tax, consulting, and financial advisory services to national, multinational and enterprise clients in Macau. The firm is a member of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited (DTTL), a UK private company limited by guarantee. Each DTTL firm is structured differently in accordance with national or local laws, regulations, customary practice, and other factors, and may secure the provision of provision of professional services in its territory through subsidiaries, affiliates, and/or other entities. Currently, there are fifty-nine professionals working inside the company, ranging from junior (A1 and A2), senior, manager and senior manager. Besides, Employee may also have the opportunity to become partner, who receives a share in the profits of the company and have a say in management. Furthermore, The increase in pay is substantial. An audit partner at Deloitte reported an annual salary range of USD $387,000 to $416,000. However, it also means additional responsibilities for bringing in new business and managing employees. Definition of Work-life balance The social structure and complexity has changed rapidly in the past decades, the society is facing massive confrontation of different responsibilities and commitments, these changes were formed as a result in increased global competition, renewed interest in personal lives and family values, aging workforce (Lockwood, 2003), as well as the blurring of work-non-work boundaries (Humbert and Lewis, 2008), work-life balance has become a predominant issue in the workplace. Extensive researches have been conducted about work-life balance; however, the context of work-life balance is very broad and will have different meaning towards different situation and interpretation. Researchers gave different definition of work-life balance, Wise (2003) states that Ã¢â¬Å"work-life balance is about helping employees better manage their work and non-work time. Ã¢â¬ According to Business dictionary, work-life balance is a comfortable state of equilibrium achieved between an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s primary priorities of their employment position and their private lifestyle. It is a stability of body or mindÃ¢â¬ (Guest, 2001). Thus, different people may have their Ã¢â¬Å"rightÃ¢â¬ combination of paid work and other aspects of their lives. Most psychologists would agree that the demands of an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s career should not overwhelm the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to enjoy a satisfying personal life outside of the business environment. In this sense, balance is the result of collective actions, not an action in itself. Whereas researchers also define meaning of Ã¢â¬Å"lifeÃ¢â¬ in three senses, they define life as unpaid work obligations, leisure in general and ultimately anything that is not employment. Maclnnes, 2008). Focus among the different definition of work-life balance As work-life balance has such broad term of definition, its implication and application to real world situation as a result is comprehensive. According to Lockwood (2003), the working definitions of terms used regarding work-life balance covering different aspects, including work-family, which refers to the work-life balance in specific areas such as quality of life, flexible work , option, life balance etc. ; work-family conflicts, which efers to the push and pull between work and family responsibilities; work-life balance from the employee viewpoint, which refers to the dilemma of managing work obligations and personal or family responsibilities; work-life balance from the employer viewpoint, which refers to the challenge of creating a supportive company culture where employees can focus on their job while at work; others such family-friendly benefits, work-life programs, work-life initiatives and work-family culture etc. ave been evolved as research areas of defining work-life balance. In the current study, we are going to focus on work-life conflict from the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ viewpoint, to explore the problems they encounter and what they could do for managing work and non-work obligations. Objectives and methodology of the study After focusing the definition of work-life balance for the study, we have set objectives in line with information collected from employees of Deloitte Macau to come up with several purposes: to find out the causes that led to employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s non-work-life balance in the work context, to investigate ways that employer can do to tackle the causes for improving the situation, to observe how employees could do to prevent from getting imbalance between work and non-work context, and finally give out recommendation on application for tackling the problems from both employer and employee viewpoint. Methodology of the studyÃ The study is conducted with a combination of pragmatism approach together with the support of literature review for inductive results. By using pragmatism approach, it is believed that causes that negatively affect the work life balance of employees of Deloitte Macau could be found out in a systematic and more comprehensive way, and with the identification of the causes, employer could help enhancing employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s work-life balance with appropriate strategies. In this case, both questionnaire and interview were used as the research strategies for the appropriateness and applicableness of this paper. Sampling and participants Questionnaires were distributed across the three operational departments of Deloitte Macau, the auditing department, compliance department and tax department for the freedom of choice staff made to complete the questionnaire. On the other hand, a manager from auditing department and an assistant manager who is in charge of supervising both tax and compliance department were selected to participate in this study. Data collection Primary data is collected from questionnaire and interview. As mentioned earlier, pragmatism and inductive approach was used for the research methodology. Both questionnaire and interviews were applied for data collection tool. Target participants of questionnaires were employees from junior to middle management level across the three operational department of Deloitte Macau. The questionnaire sampling was based on the random sampling approach while interview with mangers belongs to purposive sampling. Interpretation of data received will be outlined and elaborated in the findings session. Findings From Questionnaire A survey was carried out from 6th Feb to 9th March 2013 by asking Deloitte audit, tax and compliance staffs to fill a questionnaire. The aim of the survey is to evaluate the work and non-work balance of the staffs and find out the causes of this imbalance. A total 31 questionnaires (sample size) were completed among total 59 staffs (population size). In order to have a better understanding of the causes that lead to imbalance work and non-work life, literature review is carried out in advance and we find that the causes are mainly: Technology boom Lacking appropriate skill Overtime and limiting budget Multi-tasking. Thus, we also set them as the choices in our questionnaire (question 13 in Appendix A) for asking the causes.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
An anabolic steroid is a synthetic steroid hormone that resembles testosterone in promoting the growth of muscle (NIDA 2004). Anabolic Steroids are taken by many athletes, whether male or female and can harm the body. There are many anabolic, androgenic effects, and risks. When you continue to negatively use this kind of drug to succeed life threatening consequences come into effect. ..(needs more context ) Introduction In many states and surrounding countries athletes are using what are labeled as Anabolic Steroids. Anabolic steroids are a synthetic derivative of a naturally produced hormone testosterone, it promotes the growth of muscle (NIDA 2004). This kind of steroid is usually prescribed by doctors to treat patients for conditions such as ones who have delayed puberty or people who have medical problems that causes low amounts of testosterone. Anabolic steroids can be taken as a pill or shot directly into the muscle, or as a gel or cream rubbed on the skin (BMC 2015). Though this kind of steroid makes muscles bigger and bones stronger anabolic steroids can cause serious if not fatal effects in the body. Men as well as women using this steroid can have various problems and complications if not monitored. The majority of people who use this steroid are athletes. Athletes want a bigger and better body to improve how well they play a certain sport or how they look, therefore many use and abuse thi s drug illegally and having life changing consequences later. MethodShow MoreRelatedAnabolic Steroids Should Be Banned1348 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSteroids, more specifically anabolic steroids, are drugs that can be legally prescribed or taken illegally, to boost strength and increase athletic performance. They are based off of the hormone testosterone. On the street where the drug is sold illegally, the common slang names are Ã¢â¬Å"arnoldsÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"gym candyÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"pumpersÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"roidsÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"stackersÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"weight trainersÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"juiceÃ¢â¬ . Steroids have a long, long history, especially in regards to sporting events. Anabolic steroids were not really used worldwide untilRead MoreAnabolic Steroids Should Be Banned844 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAnabolic Steroids are used to decrease inflammation and reducing the activity of the immune system. Steroid drugs are a class of synthetic compounds that act to mimic hormones that occur naturally within the human body. There are three types of steroids anabolic, androgenic and corticosteroids. Androgenic steroids and corticosteroids are used to treat many medical conditions. Anabolic steroids can also be used to treat medical conditions but those are also the kind that are often abused by some athletesRead MoreAnabolic Steroids Should Be Banned Essay1814 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesFor years, anabolic steroids have been used by competitive athletes have used to improve performance through muscular size or strength, and by noncompetitive weight trainers for purely cosmetic physique enhancemen t. In the vast majority of cases, users of that have taken steroids for prolonged periods have reported considerable gains in physical size and strength. However, a large number of side effects and health risks have been linked to extended use of anabolic steroids. Research has indicatedRead MoreAnabolic Steroids Should Not Be Banned882 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesno, they didn t make me what I am. Anabolic steroids were helpful to me in maintaining muscle size while on a strict diet in preparation for a contest.Ã¢â¬ -Arnold Schwarzenegger (Arnold). From a young age I was told never to use steroids, especially since I was involved with sports. I was told to never cheat or take any drastic measures that could effect my performance. As I had conducted research about the use of steroids, I have found that using anabolic steroids was not as bad as I was told. I wasRead MoreAnabolic Steroid Use in Sports Summary1493 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAnabolic Steroid use in Sports The competitive drive to win at all cost is fierce among athletes. Winning at all cost often includes using one of many performance enhancing drugs such as anabolic steroids. Many athletes use performance enhancing drugs, like steroids, to achieve higher goals and set higher records than other drug-free successful athletes. Although athletes are performing at higher levels when using such drugs, what is the cost? Finally anabolic steroids should remain bannedRead MoreAnabolic Steroids : Use And Performance Enhancing Drugs1516 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The Debate over Anabolic Steroids The use of performance enhancing drugs like anabolic steroids has been a debatable topic in the United States as early as the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. Former U. S. Representative Howard Berman expresses that Ã¢â¬Å"Steroids can seem necessary to compete at the highest level, and the quick rewards may seem to outweigh the long term consequences to users.Ã¢â¬ The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) states that countless athletes, both young and old, face life threatening illnesses dueRead MoreSteroids : A Lifestyle Of Cheating1639 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesclear, beans and hype (Steroids and their). All of these words are slang for the illegal substance known more commonly as anabolic steroids and HGH, or human growth hormone. The controversy surrounding anabolic steroids and HGH in sports has stormed to the forefront of the many problems that plague America today. Anabolic steroids are synthetic chemicals that mimic the effects of the male sex hormone testosterone. Steroids promote increase d muscle gain and muscle mass. Steroids are also highly addictiveRead MoreA Lifestyle Of Cheating1512 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageslifestyle of Cheating Gym Candy, Ã¢â¬Ëroids, juice, pumpers, weight trainers, clear, beans and hype (Steroids and their). All of these words are slang for the illegal substance known more commonly as anabolic steroids and HGH, or human growth hormone. The controversy surrounding anabolic steroids and HGH in sports has stormed to the forefront of the many problems that plague America today. Anabolic steroids are synthetic chemicals that mimic the effects of the male sex hormone testosterone. According toRead MoreThe Use Of Anabolic Steroids And How Athletes Are Cheating1482 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesprevious marks. Most stick to natural remedies, but there are a select few that turn to steroid injections. Steroids have overtaken the sports world and banned many famous athletes from ever competing again. However, they believe the injections arenÃ¢â¬â¢t all that bad. This argument will elucidate on the advantages brought about through the use of anabolic steroids and how athletes are cheating their ways to the top. Steroids are enhancement drugs that greatly increase the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to grow muscles neededRead MoreSteroids Is Not The Ideal Choice For Many Health Reasons1554 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesgames for using steroidsÃ¢â¬ (History). The use of steroids has forever changed the world of professional sports, making it a world fueled by drug contacts instead of skill and talent. Steroids could possibly be legalized although there are many risks, people are caught everyday using steroids, people could be harmed from using steroids, and many negative consequences are caused from the use of steroids. Steroids are not the ideal choice for many health reasons. The use of steroids in men can cause
Friday, December 27, 2019
The Earth is always in motion. Although it seems like we are standing still on the Earths surface, the Earth is spinning on its axis andÃ orbiting the sun. We cant feel it because its a constant motion, just like being in an airplane. We are moving at the same rate as the plane, so we dont feel like were moving at all.Ã Ã How Fast Is the Earth Rotating on Its Axis? The Earth rotates on its axis once each day. BecauseÃ the circumference of the Earth at the equator is 24,901.55 miles, a spot on the equator rotates at approximately 1,037.5646 miles per hour (1,037.5646 times 24 equals 24,901.55), or 1,669.8 km/h. At the North Pole (90 degrees north) and South Pole (90 degrees south), the speed is effectively zero becauseÃ that spot rotates once in 24 hours, at a very, very slow speed. To determine the speed at any other latitude, simply multiply the cosine of the degree latitude times the speed of 1,037.5646. Thus, at 45 degrees north, the cosine is .7071068, so multiply .7071068 times 1,037.5464, and the speed of the rotation is 733.65611 miles per hour (1,180.7 km/h). For other latitudes the speed is: 10 degrees:Ã 1,021.7837 mph (1,644.4 km/h)20 degrees: 974.9747 mph (1,569.1 km/h)30 degrees: 898.54154 mph (1,446.1 km/h)40 degrees: 794.80665 mph (1,279.1 km/h)50 degrees: 666.92197 mph (1,073.3 km/h)60 degrees: 518.7732 mph (834.9 km/h)70 degrees: 354.86177 mph (571.1 km/h)80 degrees: 180.16804 mph (289.95 km/h) Cyclical Slowdown Everything is cyclical, even the speed of the rotation of the Earth, which geophysicists can measure precisely, in milliseconds. Earths rotation tends to have a five-year span, where it slows down before speeding back up again, and the final year of the slowdown correlates with an uptick in earthquakes around the world.Ã Scientists predicted that due to being the last year in this five-year slowing cycle, 2018 would be a big year for earthquakes. Correlation is not causation, of course, but geologists are always looking for tools to try and predict when an earthquake is coming.Ã Doing the Wobble Earths spin has a bit of a wobble to it, as the axis drifts at the poles. The spin has been drifting faster than normal since 2000, NASA has measured, moving 7 inches (17 cm) per year to the east. Scientists determined that it continued east instead of going back and forth because of the combined effects of the melting of Greenland and Antarctica and a loss of water in Eurasia; the axis drift appears to be especially sensitive to changes happening at 45 degrees north and south. That discoveryÃ led scientists to finally be able to answer the long-held question of why there was drift in the first place. Having dry or wet years in Eurasia has caused the wobble to the east or west. How Fast Does the Earth Travel While Orbiting the Sun? In addition to the rotational speed of the Earth spinning on its axis, the planet is also speeding at about 66,660 miles per hour (107,278.87 km/h) in its revolution around the sun once every 365.2425 days. Historical Thought It took until the 16th century beforeÃ people understood that the sun was the center of our section of the universe and that Earth moved around it, instead of Earth being stationary and the center of our solar system.
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
Vivid autobiographical episodic memories formed when an individual experiences intense emotions, generating from a surprising public event defines Flashbulb memories (FBMs). Permanent and consistent recollections processed cognitively and stored as explicit remembrances in long term memory are additional features of FBMs (Goldstein, 2014). Brown Kulik (1977) first proposed this phenomenon and argued FBMs are resistant to change like photographs. The ongoing debate over the process of cognition in relation to storing and recalling FBMs led numerous researchers to advance their understanding of the mental processing of FBMs and to evaluate the impact emotions have on memories. This paper discusses the pioneer investigation from Brown Kulik. It further explores debates opposing their unique theory of FBMs and the apparent inadequacies of their conclusions. Additionally, this paper examines plausible hypotheses from researchers of the effects on FBMs like emotions, rehearsing events, t he formation and inconsistencies of FBMs, and the decay FBMs endure over time. Finally, it evaluates a contemporary study on temporal lobe epilepsy and FBMs and the necessity for future studies to develop a model to precisely measure FBMs. This is imperative in order to benefit our comprehension of the influences emotions have on shaping, processing and storing FBMs cognitively and consequently how it impacts on our daily lives. One theory of how emotion may influence the cognitive process ofShow MoreRelatedThe Pioneer Investigation And Findings From Brown Kulik s 1977 Essay2051 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesRecollections of vivid autobiographical episodic memories formed when an individual experiences intense emotions, generating from a surprising public event defines Flashbulb memories (FBMs). Permanent and consistent remembrances processed cognitively and stored as explicit recollections in long term memory are additional features of FBMs (Goldstein, 2014). Brown Kulik (1977) first proposed this phenomenon and argued FBMs are resistant to change like photographs. The ongoing debate over the process